During the time this chapter was written, the kingdom of Babylon, which first took Daniel hostage has fallen to the kingdom of Persia.  Daniel is now an elder man; counted wise by the ruler of Persia, as he was by the kings of Babylon. Here we find Daniel standing before Darius the governor of the Chaldeans, during the reign of Cyrus the king of Persia.

DANIEL 11:1-2 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede, even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. And now I will shew thee the truth. Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia.

    Four additional kings reigned in Persia after Cyrus. The fourth king was the richest of them all. Xerxes (Ahasuerus) who married Esther was this fourth king. (Esther 2:16-17)

Daniel 11:3And a mighty king shall stand up, that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

     The king of Grecia (greece), Alexander the great, came and conquered Persia. (Daniel 8:20-21)

Daniel 11:4 And when he shall stand up, his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven; and not to his posterity, nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others besides those.

    Alexander the great died at the age of 32, and his kingdom was divided between his four generals.

Daniel 11:5 And the king of the south shall be strong, and one of his princes; and he shall be strong above him, and have dominion; his dominion shall be a great dominion.

    One of these four generals, Ptolemy, began a dynasty in Egypt(South); and Seleucus did the same in Syria(North).  Lycemicus took over Asia Minor (east) and Cassander took Macedonia (West).

Daniel 11:6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement: but she shall not retain the power of the arm; neither shall he stand, nor his arm: but she shall be given up, and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened he in these times.

     Egypt and Syria formed an alliance in 250 B.C. after both generals had died.  Ptolemy II (ruler of Egypt) gave his daughter Bernice in marriage to the grandson of Seleucus, Antiochus II (ruler of Syria). Two years later Ptolemy II died and Antiochus II divorced Bernice and remarried his former wife Laodice. Laodice then poisoned Antiochus and had Bernice killed. She appointed her son, Seleucus II, to the throne of Syria.
Daniel 11:7 But out of a branch of her (Bernice's) roots shall one stand up in his estate, which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail:

     Back in Egypt, Bernice's brother, Ptolemy III now ruled. He invaded Syria and avenged his sister's death by executing Laodice.  Seleucus II (the king of Syria) fled.

DANEIL 11:8-9 And shall also carry captive into Egypt their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold: and he shall continue more years than the king of the north. So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land.

    Ptolemy III carried away tons of spoil from Syria; including  4,000 talents of gold, 40,000 talents of silver, and 2,500 idols.
                                                                                                  
DANIEL 11:10 But his sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come, and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, be stirred up, even to his forces.

    Seleucus II mounted  a counterattack against Egypt, but he was killed. His son Antiochus III succeeded him as king of Syria.

DANIEL 11:11-14 These verses tell of continuing warfare between Syria and Egypt.



DANIEL 11:15-16 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount, and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither his chosen people, neither shall there be any strength to withstand. But he that cometh against him shall do according to his own will, and none shall stand before him; and he shall stand in the glorious land, which by his hand shall be consumed.
    
In 198 B.C. Antiochus III (the king of Syria) won control of Palestine (the glorious land) at a battle outside of Sidon.

DANIEL 11:17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom, and upright ones with him; thus shall he do: and he shall give him the daughter of women, corrupting her: but she shall not stand on his side, neither be for him.

The BBE reads: 17  And it will be his purpose to come with the strength of all his kingdom, but in place of this he will make an agreement with him; and he will give him the daughter of women to send destruction on it; but this will not take place or come about.

     In 193 B.C. Antiochus III gave his daughter Cleopatra (not the famous Cleopatra) in marriage to Ptolemy V. He hoped that Cleopatra would foster Syrian interests in Egypt, but she remained faithful to her husband. Thus Syria and Egypt entered into covenants of alliance and marriage.


DANIEL 11:18-19 After this shall he turn his face unto the isles, and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach he shall cause it to turn upon him. Then he shall turn his face toward the fort to his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found.

     Antiochus III joined with Hannibal and together they invaded Greece (the isles) , Being defeated in battle Antiochus III returned to Antioch, where he died while attempting to rob a pagan temple.

From here we will rely heavily upon the commentary of John Gill.

DANIEL 11:20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes in the glory of the kingdom: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger nor in battle.

“This was Seleucus Philopator, the eldest son of Antiochus the great; who succeeded him, and was settled in his kingdom in his father’s room, and stood upon his basis; and might well be called a raiser of taxes, being not only a covetous man, and a lover of money above all things; and therefore laid heavy taxes on his subjects, to gratify his avarice; but was indeed obliged to it, to raise the thousand talents yearly to pay the Romans… Seleucus reigned in all but twelve years at most, he did nothing but raise taxes yearly to pay this tribute…. Seleucus reigned but twelve years at most, which were but few in comparison of the long reign of his father, which was a reign of thirty seven years; and he died not through the rage of the populace, or through the sedition and rebellion of his subjects, nor in war, with a foreign enemy; but through the treachery of Heliodorus his treasurer, by whom he was poisoned, as is supposed; for the sake of Antiochus Epiphanes.” Ibid..

DANIEL 11:21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person, to whom they shall not give the honour of the kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

“Upon his basis or stand, in the same place where Seleucus Philopator stood, succeeded Antiochus Epiphanies his brother, called "vile", being a very immoral man, given to drunkenness, lasciviousness, uncleanness, and unnatural lusts, and a violent persecutor of the church of God…  neither his father, nor his brother, nor the peers and people of the land of the kingdom of Syria (gave him honor); they never once thought of making him king; they neither chose him, nor called him, nor crowned him: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries; pretending to take it, not for himself, but for his nephew Demetrius, the son of his brother Seleucus.” Ibid..

DANIEL 11:22 And with the arms of a flood shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the prince of the covenant.

The armies of Heliodorus which stood against Antiochus, in an attempt to help the young son of Seleucus, was overthrown. And Demetrius the prince (Son of Seleucus, nephew of Antiochus, and rightful holder of the throne of Syria) soon met his demise. The covenant being the covenant formed between the grandfather of Demetrius and Ptolemy of Egypt.

DANIEL 11:23-24   And after the league made with him he shall work deceitfully: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people. He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest places of the province; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers’ fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds, even for a time.

In the life of Cleopatra, Antiochus Epiphanes made a league with Egypt; while assuring the young Ptolemy that he held to the covenant of their fathers and even attended his coronation (2nd Maccabees 4:21), he shortly came against him with a small force and with the strength of surprise; and took Memphis and much of Egypt, even to Alexandria.

None of his ancestors, more near or more remote.. however greater these might be in power or riches, they were inferior to him in success; though they all… had their eye upon Egypt, and would gladly have been masters of it; yet none of the kings of Syria prevailed over it, as Antiochus did.

When Antiochus took a city, he scattered the spoil among his soldiers, whereby he gained their affections, and attached them to his interest; and in this his liberality and unificence he is said to abound above all the kings that were before him.

DANIEL 11:25-26 And he shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south with a great army; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.

“That is, Antiochus shall arouse himself, and exert his courage, and gather a large and powerful army, and set out with them to fight with Ptolemy Philometor, king of
Egypt; this is his second expedition into Egypt, as is observed in the Apocrypha:

   “About the same time Antiochus prepared his second voyage into Egypt:”(2 Maccabees 5:1)

   “Wherefore he entered into Egypt with a great multitude, with chariots, and elephants, and horsemen, and a great navy, And made war against Ptolemee king of Egypt: but Ptolemee      was afraid of him, and fled; and many were wounded to death.”(1 Maccabees 1:17-18).. Ibid

The army of Antiochus, like a mighty flood of water, which carries all before it, overflowed, or bore down and destroyed the army of Ptolemy, and overran all Egypt.

DANIEL 11:27  And both these kings’ hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed.

Antiochus and Ptolemy later met in Memphis to discuss conditions of peace. Though both men acted as if they respected each other greatly, the hearts of both men were filled with mischief. “Yet the Lord, by whom all events are predetermined; whose counsel shall stand, notwithstanding all the devices in the hearts of men, and of kings themselves: the end of this peace between these two kings, and the end of the wars between them, yea, the end of the two kingdoms, when they should cease, and come into other hands; all was fixed to a time appointed of God, and should surely come to pass, as he had decreed.”

DANIEL 11: 28  Then shall he return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.

Antiochus, with the spoils of Egypt, and the gifts and presents he had received there, returned to his own land. Then his attention was turned against the Jews; and the HOLY COVENANT; that existed between GOD and the Jews.

   “And after that Antiochus had smitten Egypt, he returned again in the hundred forty and third year, and went up against Israel and Jerusalem with a great multitude, And entered proudly into the sanctuary, and took away the golden altar, and the candlestick of light, and all the vessels thereof,”(1 Maccabees 1:20-21)

Antiochus; heart became enraged with the Jews because a false rumor had been spread in Judea that Antiochus was dead, Jason took the opportunity to recover the office of high priest from his brother Menelaus; and, with a thousand men, took the city of Jerusalem. Antiochus, hearing of this, concluded the whole nation of the Jews had revolted from him; and therefore he fought against Judea in order to suppress this rebellion (2nd Maccabees 5:5-11)

“Upon reaching Jerusalem, he committed very wicked exploits. He ordered his soldiers to slay all they met, without mercy, old and young, women and children, virgins and young men; and in three days’ time eighty thousand were slain, forty thousand bound, and no less sold: he went into the temple, and took all the vessels in it, and all the gold and silver, and hidden treasures of it, to the value of a thousand and eight hundred talents (1st Maccabees chapter 1).” Ibid

Daniel 11:29-31 At the time appointed he shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. For the ships of Chittim shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence with them that forsake the holy covenant. And arms shall stand on his part, and they shall pollute the sanctuary of strength, and shall take away the daily sacrifice, and they shall place the abomination that maketh desolate.

This is Antiochus’ third expedition into Egypt. But this third time, was not like the first or the second; for Ptolemy had called for the Romans to help him. The Romans sent their ambassadors Caius Popilius Laenas, Caius Decimus, and Caius Hostilius, in ships from Chittim to Antiochus, to require him to desist from making war upon Ptolemy,

With this Antiochus returned, being grieved with the intervention of the Romans; and thus he took out his frustrations against the Jews. Sadly, he received great intelligence against the faithful Jew, by those Apostate Jews who had forsaken the Jehovah and had accepted the Greek religion.

  “And made themselves uncircumcised, and forsook the holy covenant, and joined themselves to the heathen, and were sold to do mischief.”(1 Maccabees 1:15)

The armies of Antiochus defiled the Temple of God, his Sanctuary of Strength,  that contained his Ark. Antiochus ordered by letters that the daily sacrifices to Jehovah should cease. He offered swine’s blood upon the holy altar; and then placed an image of a heathen GOD upon it; thus desolating the house of GOD. (see 1st Maccabees chapter 1).

Please note that this abomination of Desolation is not that which Christ spoke of from the Mount of Olives; for this abomination of Daniel 11, is the same of Daniel 8, which happened about 200 years before the Lord preached this message. The abomination that Christ foresaw was the desolation of the temple in 70 AD by the Roman abomination (Luke 21:20, Mark 13:14).

Daniel 11:33-35   And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days. Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries. And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end: because it is yet for a time appointed.

Those who had a true relationship with Jehovah stood firm against the dealings of this madman. And they taught many not to apostatize. The heroics of the Maccabees surely are being mentioned here. And for their stand for the truth, many, many faithful men were tortured to the death. What was the purpose of GOD allowing this? The Jewish nation had been corrupted with heathenism and were merely lukewarm. The exploits of Epiphanies tried them like fire, and it purged them and it made the white. Thus we see that God used the evil of this man, for the purifying of his people. And he assures them that it would not last forever, because the end of Antiochus’ reign had an appointed end. For Antiochus was soon overcome by a plague from GOD, and the divided Grecian Empire came to an end; As the Roman Empire conquered Asia and Africa.

Daniel 11:36 And the king shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper till the indignation be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done.

Because the angels purpose is to show the whole course of the persecutions of the Jews until the coming of  Christ, he now speaks of the monarchy of the Romans,  which he notes by the name of a king, who were without religion and condemned the true God. And we believe it transcends to the reign of Papal Rome, who is the little horn of Daniel 7.

Daniel 11:37-39 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.  But in his estate shall he honour the God of forces: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things. Thus shall he do in the most strong holds with a strange god, whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory: and he shall cause them to rule over many, and shall divide the land for gain.

We cannot help but to believe that this is indeed a reference to the Papacy. For it is the Papal Rome who claims that it does not regard the desire of women, holding to the abominable doctrine of celibacy. It is also the Papacy that claims to be GOD OF GODS.

DANIEL 11:40-45

Concerning the following verses (Daniel 11:40-45); we believe that they are still future. So we can only speculate of their meaning. As we read these words, we know today that the Papacy wishes to rule over Jerusalem. They wish for the United Nations to declare it a ‘world city’, and to allow them to over see it.

If the Papacy is given such a position, then this could be very well the fulfilling of verse 45.

“And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace between the seas in the glorious holy mountain; yet he shall come to his end, and none shall help him.”

This would be another abomination that makes desolate, an abomination that will cause the world to become desolate; for it is the evil that precedes the return of Christ.

Daniel 12:1-2 And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which standeth for the children of thy people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book. And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting


                                   
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      DANIEL CHAPTER ELEVEN
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